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Book Title: Psiche e natura|
The author of the book: Wolfgang Pauli
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 4.72 MB
Date of issue: May 2006
ISBN 13: 9788845920509
Read full description of the books Psiche e natura:
Figura tra le più rappresentative della fisica del Novecento, Wolfgang Pauli si interrogò a lungo, e con una intensità ignota ad altri scienziati, sulla possibilità di una concezione unitaria che superasse la divisione tra natura e psiche, mente e materia. Decisivo fu il sodalizio con Jung, nato agli inizi degli anni Trenta e durato oltre un quarto di secolo, giacché nel corso di questo dialogo ininterrotto i percorsi della fisica dei quanti e dello studio della psiche apparvero a Pauli significativamente intrecciati: «È stata la concordanza di senso di idee che si sono presentate in rami diversi del sapere quasi simultaneamente, la loro sensibile coincidenza, a indurmi a uscire dalla mia stretta specializzazione» scriverà anni dopo. Frutto di questo scambio è la pubblicazione nel 1952 di Naturerklärung und Psyche, che comprende, accanto al noto La sincronicità come principio di nessi acausali di Jung, lo studio di Pauli L’influsso delle immagini archetipiche sulla formazione delle teorie scientifiche di Keplero, qui tradotto per la prima volta in italiano insieme a due preziosi scritti del 1948 e del 1953: Moderni esempi di «Hintergrundsphysik», un «abbozzo» rinvenuto nella corrispondenza con Jung dove Pauli esamina il significato simbolico e il fondamento archetipico dei concetti quantitativi della scienza, e il sorprendente La lezione di piano, «una fantasia attiva sull’inconscio» dove espone le sue congetture su fisica, psicologia, biologia.Pauli non rinnega mai il principio di oggettività della sua scienza. Ma ciò non gli impedisce, ad esempio, di prendere a pretesto la disputa, che oggi può apparire di mero interesse erudito, tra Keplero e il grande pensatore dell’esoterismo Robert Fludd per ricercare un «oltre», rispetto alla fisica, capace di colmare il vuoto lasciato dalla cancellazione dell'Anima Mundi e di ricomporre su un piano più alto la perduta armonia – fondendo così la ricerca nel campo che lo ha reso famoso con riflessioni sulla psiche di rara suggestione.
Read information about the authorPauli was born in Vienna to a chemist Wolfgang Joseph Pauli (né Wolf Pascheles, 1869–1955) and his wife Bertha Camilla Schütz; his sister was Hertha Pauli, the writer and actress. Pauli's middle name was given in honor of his godfather, physicist Ernst Mach. Pauli's paternal grandparents were from prominent Jewish families of Prague; his great-grandfather was the Jewish publisher Wolf Pascheles. Pauli's father converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism shortly before his marriage in 1899. Pauli's mother, Bertha Schütz, was raised in her own mother's Roman Catholic religion; her father was Jewish writer Friedrich Schütz. Pauli was raised as a Roman Catholic, although eventually he and his parents left the Church. He is considered to have been a deist and a mystic.
Pauli attended the Döblinger-Gymnasium in Vienna, graduating with distinction in 1918. Only two months after graduation, he published his first paper, on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. He attended the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, working under Arnold Sommerfeld, where he received his PhD in July 1921 for his thesis on the quantum theory of ionized diatomic hydrogen.
Sommerfeld asked Pauli to review the theory of relativity for the Encyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften (Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences). Two months after receiving his doctorate, Pauli completed the article, which came to 237 pages. It was praised by Einstein; published as a monograph, it remains a standard reference on the subject to this day.
Pauli spent a year at the University of Göttingen as the assistant to Max Born, and the following year at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, which later became the Niels Bohr Institute in 1965. From 1923 to 1928, he was a lecturer at the University of Hamburg. During this period, Pauli was instrumental in the development of the modern theory of quantum mechanics. In particular, he formulated the exclusion principle and the theory of nonrelativistic spin.
In 1928, he was appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at ETH Zurich in Switzerland where he made significant scientific progress. He held visiting professorships at the University of Michigan in 1931, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1935. He was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1931.
At the end of 1930, shortly after his postulation of the neutrino and immediately following his divorce in November, Pauli had a severe breakdown. He consulted psychiatrist and psychotherapist Carl Jung who, like Pauli, lived near Zurich. Jung immediately began interpreting Pauli's deeply archetypal dreams, and Pauli became one of the depth psychologist's best students. He soon began to criticize the epistemology of Jung's theory scientifically, and this contributed to a certain clarification of the latter's thoughts, especially about the concept of synchronicity. A great many of these discussions are documented in the Pauli/Jung letters, today published as Atom and Archetype. Jung's elaborate analysis of more than 400 of Pauli's dreams is documented in Psychology and Alchemy.
The German annexation of Austria in 1938 made him a German citizen, which became a problem for him in 1939 after the outbreak of World War II. In 1940, he tried in vain to obtain Swiss citizenship, which would have allowed him to remain at the ETH.
Pauli moved to the United States in 1940, where he was employed as a professor of theoretical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study. In 1946, after the war, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and subsequently returned to Zurich, where he mostly remained for the rest of his life. In 1949, he was granted Swiss citizenship.
In 1958, Pauli was awarded the Max Planck medal. In that same year, he fell ill with pancreatic cancer. When his last assistant, Charles Enz, visited him at the Rotkreuz hospital in Zurich, Pauli asked him: "Did you see the room number?" It was number 137. Throughout his life, Pauli had
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